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注意力资源问题:消费者神经科学的应用

作者:David Rosenstein, Erik du Plessis
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注意力有很多定义, 但大多数人把它狭义地定义为一种数量有限的认知资源, 在信息处理过程中,哪些可能会因为注意力的消耗而枯竭. We propose there may be greater utility in using a hybrid approach to defining 注意, one that falls somewhere between how psychologists and economists define this aspect of human functioning. 进一步 understanding and defining of 注意 as a resource may be beneficial to both cognitive scientists and economists who are involved in the field of consumer neuroscience. We believe that a new conceptualization within this broader context will provide clients with further reaching and more impactful understandings of the role of 注意 within their brand.

介绍

从心理学的角度来看, 注意 is often defined as focused mental engagement on an item of information or perceptual experience. As stimuli come into our awareness, we attend to them and decide whether we will act on them or not. 从经济学家的角度来看, 注意力通常有不同的定义, 作为一种有限的资源,一个人只有这么多. Psychologists also see 注意 as a limited resource; limited not so much in quantity as in distribution. 某些项目的优先处理必须在损害其他项目的情况下进行(芬德利) & 吉尔). 我们提出了一种综合的方法来理解和量化注意, 它同时借鉴了经济学家和心理学家的框架. 在实践中, this means that 注意 needs to be measured in a comparative context; not just one item or stimulus at a time, 正如在当前的消费者神经科学研究中经常发生的那样.

将注意力作为一种资源进行量化的尝试主要是由经济学家进行的, who are interested in understanding the diminishing effects of information on 注意 systems and the broader associated impacts and consequences at a larger population level (Davenport & 贝克). 与此形成鲜明对比的是, most of the psychological definitions of 注意 tend to focus almost exclusively on the individual intrinsic level (Teixeira). 我们同意经济学家的观点,即需要关注更广泛的社会背景, 特别是在我们这个飞速发展的信息时代, in which it is largely accepted that information is growing exponentially and becoming more readily available (Teixeira). 在市场营销和广告等领域尤其如此. 在这些地区,我们可能正在处理注意力资源匮乏的问题. 例如, information overload exacerbated by accelerating technological developments – such as smartphones and associated social media – may be contributing significantly to the erosion of 注意al resources across global populations, through reductions or disruptions of 注意 spans (Greenfield; Galloway; Teixeira).

注意力是一种稀缺资源

Many psychologists and behavioral economists have long been aware of the problem of limited 注意 (Falkinger). 正如赫伯特·西蒙(Herbert Simon)在20世纪70年代初指出的那样, 我们生活在一个信息丰富的世界, 哪里出现了新的稀缺, 即, 信息所消耗资源的稀缺性, 注意. 信息消耗了接收者的注意力. 进一步, 生活在信息不断增长的社会中, we are likely to produce poverties of 注意 (Simon; Falkinger). Therefore, the examination of 注意 as a resource has become pertinent across market economies.

“注意力经济”是一个术语,用来理解注意力是一种稀缺资源, whereby economic theory may be used to understand the various problems that derive from 注意 scarcity constraints (Crawford). Thinking of 注意 as an economy of supply and demand allows us to understand that supply constraints create new problems to market choices. 如果在一个细分市场中存在注意力的稀缺性, or if there are massive amounts of competition in a segment – exploding information demands and options for choice – then new approaches need to be considered by brands. 注意力作为一种有限资源的可获得性, 因此, 成为市场研究中的一个基本问题, 品牌执行策略, 和通信. 从心理学的角度来看, 注意 precedes and underpins other cognitive and affective processes in consumers’ responses to products and brands. Without adequately understanding whether an individual is attending to a target stimulus, researchers cannot determine the extent to which emotional and cognitive responses are activated in a meaningful way.

从经济角度来看, conceptualizing 注意 as an increasingly scarce resource in high demand by competing brands requires consumer neuroscience practitioners to understand 注意 as more than a brain mechanism in cognitive functioning, but also as a requisite resource essential for decision making and an essential component of brand equity (Teixeira). Incorporating this perspective enables brands to have a better understanding of how to maximize their strategies for capturing and holding this key resource of their consumers. 根据学校心理健康中心的说法, the capacity for 注意 appears to be shrinking in response to exponential increases in technological innovations and acceleration (The Center is co-directed by Howard Adelman and Linda Taylor and operates under the auspices of the School Mental Health Project, 部门. 加州大学洛杉矶分校的心理学).

Consumer neuroscience practitioners often focus on individual brands or marketing communications, measuring how 注意 toward that one stimulus is allocated among a sample of respondents. 把注意力看作一种经济资源, 然而, one must see the brand and its associated messaging as embedded in a whole matrix of competing brand messages and communications, 都在争夺同样的注意力资源. 考虑到这一点, consumer neuroscience practitioners can begin to present their findings within this broader context, providing clients with 更深层次的 and more impactful understandings of the role of 注意 within their brand.

结论

通过神经科学的镜头来接近注意力, 作为一个内源性的认知过程, may undermine the extent to which competition for 注意 may contribute to how 注意 is allocated in real-world marketing and shopping settings. By repurposing and widening the lens through which we view 注意 to include the economist’s perspective, consumer neuroscientists can conduct research that examines 注意 more realistically, 提供更丰富的, 更深层次的, 以及对客户更有意义的数据集.

关于作者
David Rosenberg来自临床心理学背景, 在神经科学领域拥有丰富的知识, 并完成了博士学位.D. 基于fMRI神经成像技术. 作为神经SenseTM团队的科学骨干, 他确保所有的项目都是科学的和合乎伦理的.

埃里克·杜·普莱西于2019年去世. 通过把这篇文章放在聚光灯下,我们想要记住他伟大的思想和远见. He specialized in brand and advertising research and was a visiting professor at the Copenhagen Business School’s unit of Neuro-Decision-making. 他经常在会议上发表关于大脑的演讲, 情绪, 广告与品牌策略, i.e神经学营销. 

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这篇文章最初发表在《亚博IM电竞网址》上, NMSBA members have access to the full archive of this quarterly magazine on neuromarketing. 有兴趣加入? 检查选项.