Neuroscience of preference, a comparative study between physical and digital Direct Mail
In a digital society, will new e-stimuli have the expected impact on consumer decisions? Is there a difference in effectiveness (impact on consumer preference) between communication channels (analog vs. 数字)? 这些都是CTT -葡萄牙邮局提出的问题, 葡萄牙物理通信领域的领先公司, 需要答案. The present research aimed to examine the possible differences through a neuroscientific study, 分析了皮质, autonomous and behavioral activity of the consumer during the presentation of different formats of visual advertising stimuli. 根据加拿大邮政的一份技术报告, 传统的广告, 比如纸传单, would be more action-oriented since the physical format provides more sensory stimulation than the digital format. We analyzed ease of understanding and persuasion using neuroscience techniques, 以及它们如何根据所呈现的格式而变化.
为此, we designed a study using the most innovative consumer analysis techniques applying neuroscience tools such as EEG, 眼球追踪, GSR, 心率和面部识别. Emotional reporting scales were also added for a richer profile description and drivers’ identification to be applied within the scope of the digital versus physical dichotomy.
作为B2B维度的持续改进过程的一部分, CTT wanted to understand the effectiveness of direct mail compared with digital mail with different drivers: interest, 乐趣和动力, 情感的参与, 认知负荷与刺激处理时间. In total, seven elements of direct mail and digital mail were selected and presented. Three stimuli were presented for L'Oréal and Garnier (the current direct mail, the digital one and the ICN机构 proposal for the physical stimulus). For all others, only two stimuli (physical and 数字) were presented. Each participant was also asked to evaluate using the SAM (Manikin) scale, 愉悦和激活, 以及刺激方案的哪一部分最令人满意(前面), 内部, 回来, 几个或没有). The sample included volunteers in the lab for neuroscience; 30 participants (F: 10 / M: 20), 平均年龄27岁, all of whom responded to various scales of emotional report and an explicit questionnaire at the end.
For the study we used the EEG Emotiv Epoc + (14 channels with 256Hz collection), 识别认知过程, specific areas associated with behavior and measures of emotional valence. 我们使用了Eyetribe的眼球追踪和注意力工具6.识别注视点的软件, 热点图, 固定序列, 第一次注视时间, 学生的反应, 眨眼, 感兴趣的领域(AOI). Emotient软件通过网络摄像头进行采集, 用于识别面部和情绪表情. We linked dermal conductance (RCD) and heart rate (Shimmer), with special treatment of peaks. Support for data collection and processing was performed via iMotions 6.2.1 (imotion Biometric Research, A / S)软件. The following scales were used: brief maximization scale; PANAS - positive affect and negative affect scale; self-assessment Manikin - SAM in the evaluation of the stimuli; BIS / BAS - behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) in the evaluation of the personality profile and also the Myers and Briggs scale. The whole setting was based on the following problem: which is the most effective stimulus, 直接邮寄或电子邮寄? 什么方面可以重新制定，使直销函件更有吸引力?
与假设, “实体直销函件比电子函件在情感上更积极”, it appeared that the physical version engaged/excited more positively than the digital one. The physical format also generated more emotions than the digital format. The physical format triggered more emotions in general when compared with the digital format, 引起了更中立的反应(见图1). The digital format generated less involvement, less excitement and less subjective preference. Digital suggests greater frustration in contrast with the physical format (figure 2).
It was also confirmed that cognitive workload is smaller in the physical format wherein the cognitive load measurement involves an effort to comprehend the stimulus and is closely related to the performance of working memory. 认知的努力就越大, 要理解刺激计划就越困难, 而且越不可能被记住(图3).
The study revealed that the digital format generates more anxiety and physiological activation while direct mail digital generates a greater response in dermal conductance (RCD) and heart rate per minute (BPM), 暗示更多的焦虑或激活, 哪些与情绪表达相关, 并指向负面的情绪影响. Physical direct mail generates greater cognitive involvement than digital; the digital format generated lower involvement and meditation, 表明影响较小(参见图1). The direct mail that the ICN机构 team redesigned based on concepts of behavioral economics and neuroscience, 产生更多的即时性并呈现出更多的积极性, 产生比原来更大的吸引力.
Recent studies at the request of Royal Mail and Canada Post confirm the prediction that physical advertising materials tend to require a higher level of emotional processing than digital ones, indicating that tangible materials are more likely to generate positive emotional associations, 从而更容易被植入记忆. 在本研究中, 和最初的假设一样, direct mail in a physical format is more effective in several measures. 它似乎比数字化更有说服力, it stimulates more (positively) than digital and it generates more affectivity and preference than digital. Direct physical mailing generates even greater cognitive involvement as well as more immediacy and brand awareness than digital. 总之，公平地说，“你的大脑希望它是物理的!".
The future of neuroscience applied to consumption is promising and presents the possibility of investigating the decision-making process of the consumer, allowing positive identification of choices to better meet expectations of consumption, 交付或服务. 最后, 结果表明，物理刺激, 正如《亚博IM电竞网址》2015年的报道所示, 感官刺激是否更有效, 引起积极的情感反应. This facilitates consumer decision-making and proves to be an essential element in the marketing-sales process leading to trigger action vs. 不作为.