NMSBA标志子

隐性度量:它是什么? 如何使用它?

Women already knew it long before; when you ask a man if he likes your dress, 他回答的时间有点长, 他的真实想法可能与他嘴里的回答完全不同. Femke van Zandvoort (NMSBA)通过采访一些应用这种方法的主要实践者,收集了一些关于IAT和相关问题的观点

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如果你明确询问人们的态度, personality or other characteristics you are not necessarily going to get a true answer. This is partially because people will distort the truth to paint themselves in a better light, and partially because people are often unable to accurately reflect on their attitudes and behavior. 心理实验室的邓肯·史密斯(Duncan Smith)说,自我报告的有效性也受到了损害,因为许多人完全没有意识到自己的性格,也不总是能意识到是什么驱使他们做出决定. 使用隐式度量可以绕过这些问题.

Implicit measures are a range of techniques that aim to capture people’s underlying associations, 动机, 信念和态度. 这些技术最初是在学术界发展起来的, 主要是作为一种衡量社会态度的方法, such as underlying prejudices and stereotypes that people are either not consciously aware of, 或者不愿意表达, 因为他们不想显得有偏见, 神经strata的达伦·布里杰说.

史密斯解释说,我们不断地分类, categorize and link concepts; black/white, 男性/女性, 热/冷. This is done very quickly, efficiently and automatically in our brains. 史密斯:“基本上, 我们在大脑中构建了一幅世界地图,这让我们无需使用太多资源就能做出判断和决定. Implicit testing allows direct insight into this map of representations, 以及他们如何受到外界的影响.”

不同隐范式

一般来说,市场营销和广告社区所采用的研究技术都是基于反应时间. 这些技术基于两个关键原则. Firstly, 每当我们看到一个单词或图像, 所有与它相关的事物(不管我们是否意识到这些关联)都会被影射. That is to say that they will come to mind more quickly and easily given the opportunity. Secondly when a person is given a task that involves them recognizing a word or image, 如果首先向他们展示一个他们在脑海中联想到的单词或图像,他们会更快地识别出来. Bridger: “In other words if they are primed, it speeds up their recognition reaction speed. 因此,在这些任务中,反应速度成为衡量两个事物之间联系程度的标准, 比如一个单词和一个品牌标志.”

有许多不同的内隐测试模型,但主要用于神经营销语境的是语义启动, 一个简单呈现的单词或图像出现在哪里, 以及内隐联想测验(IAT). The IAT is primarily used for brand positioning, brand tracking and pre/post ad evaluation. 在一个典型的语义启动测试中, 一个视觉词或“prime”(例如一个可能的品牌属性词,如“fashionable”)将在屏幕上出现几毫秒. 在这之后', one of two randomized targets (例如 “Burberry” or “Louis Vuitton”) will follow.

《亚博IM电竞网址》杂志的杰玛·卡尔弗特解释说,这些测试是通过计算机化的网络应用程序来完成的,这些应用程序迫使受访者对电脑屏幕上闪现的文字或图像做出极其迅速的反应. 卡尔弗特:“该方法利用了潜意识和有意识的大脑反应(丹尼尔·卡尼曼在他的畅销书《亚博IM电竞网址》中分别称为“系统I”和“系统2”)在不同的时间框架内发生的事实. 所以通过要求应答者快速响应, 通常少于一秒, 我们有可能捕捉到他们储存在记忆中的不同概念和情感之间联系的字面强度.”

Phil Barden of Decode Marketing stresses that ”implicit” is not the same as ”unconscious”. Barden:“要点是区分(a)被测量的过程类型(自动的还是受控的)和(b)测量类型(直接的还是间接的). 在测量技术方面,自动和受控过程之间的区别比间接和直接的区别更有意义. The key is to prevent adjustments of responses through controlled (system 2) processes.”

隐性测度的历史

潜意识偏见和刻板印象自19世纪以来就已为人所知,但内隐记忆直到20世纪80年代才得到更详细的研究. The most popular IAT was developed in the 1990s by a team led by psychologist Anthony Greenwald.

Sarah Walker of 明略行 mentions the Implicit Association Test (Greenwald等l. 1998年)是一种社会心理学测量方法,旨在检测概念之间自动关联的强度. 一个快速的回答意味着对一个主题有强烈的联想. The stronger the association, the more closely the ideas are connected in memory”. 最初是由格林沃尔德,麦吉, & Schwartz(1998),并仍然被心理学家广泛应用作为理解直觉反应的方法.

隐性措施的好处

Neurostrata的汤姆·诺布尔(Thom Noble)认为,隐性测量作为一种神经工具非常强大:“作为一名核心营销人员, 我想说它是神经宇宙中最有用的工具.”

据沃克, implicit testing allows the assessment of attitude/cognition without requiring people to introspect and deliberate over their responses; in doing so, implicit measures address some of the limitations of explicit measures. 例如, they are less susceptible to response biases such as social desirability (费舍尔,1993; Steenkamp、德容、 & 费利克斯, 2010), and can help measure responses that may be introspectively inaccessible (Wilson, 2002).

The tests have evolved over time and research can now take place on tablets or smartphones, so participants can take the test in their own time and environment of choice. 这对参与者来说是一个优势, but it also makes it an affordable and quick option for the researcher, 因为您不需要邀请组到一个中心位置.

另一个优势, 据NEUROHM的Rafał Ohme报道, is that clients are much more ready to use implicit technology than ”hard neuro” technology. Ohme: “It is a very good starting point for inviting clients to the world of neuromarketing. Sometimes clients are still quite afraid of micro volts and brain waves, or even more scary; fMRI images. Instead, implicit gives you something that is quite familiar to you. It gives wonderful opportunities to give insight in implicit subconscious, 没有沉重的脑电波.Ohme提到了另一个好处,即你可以接触到那些你永远无法邀请到一个中心位置的群体. Ohme:“例如, top private banking executives will never visit you for a focus group, 因为花的时间太多了. 内隐反应时间, 他们只需要坐在电脑或智能手机前, 给你五分钟的时间.”

隐性测度的局限性

有, however, 还有一些测试的限制, 除了一些一般市场研究的局限性. 史密斯解释说,其中一个限制是,在个体基础上,输出不是100%准确的. A high implicit score does not mean that a person will definitely behave one way or another, 但有研究表明,隐性分数可以用来更好地预测投票行为等事情, 而不是单独使用明确的问题.”

根据Calvert的一个限制是隐式度量只捕获对您选择包含的属性的响应, 而不是, 例如, 功能磁共振成像测量整个大脑的活动. In other words; implicit measures will give you answers to the questions you think are important. 因此,结果可能具有误导性.

Ohme believes the most important thing about reaction times is to control the noise. Ohme:“例如, 你必须控制表达式的长度, 因为当使用较长的表达式时, 回答这个问题需要更长的时间. 例如这个表达:“了解我的需求”, 比表达“乐趣”需要更长的时间来处理.“还有很多个体差异. Some people are fast and some people slower to respond in general. These issues can be solved by including a calibration phase in the test. You can then compare reaction ”units” of one person with ”units” of someone else. Walker supports the opinion that “because of these differences in reading and comprehension times, 这种方法的有效性仅限于单个单词, 与许多供应商的说法相反. Meaning, there are limitations on the types of associations that can be measured in this way.”

And, finally, although implicit measures provide valuable insights that were invisible before, 它不会取代现有的方法. 正如欧姆所说:“它只是提供了第二层. 第一层是显式的,第二层是隐式的. I would like to think of implicit as the sound that was introduced in Hollywood movies. 以前有无声电影. 现在,你有了有声电影.”

应用程序

根据布里杰, 隐式测量在一些传统上难以调查的领域特别有用, 包括测试早期创意概念唤起预期感觉和联想的能力, 多感官刺激(如声音和音乐), and 经验 areas such as simulations of website experiences.

The use of implicit measures is surely no longer limited to applications in marketing departments. As Ohme explains: “It creates completely new opportunities for us, 神经营销学家, 因为到目前为止,我们99%的客户都是营销人员. With reaction times you can open doors for HR and sales departments, 就像这个一样,你可以, 例如, 衡量员工的满意度.”

Noble goes further to say they have commercialized and extended it into recruitment, 成本优化程序, premiumization, 服务设计, 多感官, 经验, 政治, 政府谈判策略/仲裁, 试镜, casting, 电视和电影脚本和试点项目, 游戏和票房预测, 在别人.

有 a lot of companies worldwide offering implicit testing, 例如Decode Marketing, NEUROHM, Neurosense, Neurostrata, Mindlab, 明略行, 还有感知决策科学等等.

迄今为止最大的一项内隐研究是由NMSBA(神经系统反对吸烟项目)进行的. 这项研究对来自24个国家的4996名受访者(包括重度吸烟者和轻度吸烟者)进行了测试,他们在某一特定国家达到购买香烟的法定年龄后的头3年里进行了测试. 我们对观众进行了一项神经心理学内隐联想测试,以发现对目前有关香烟警告的讨论有价值的新见解. 研究发现,形象的健康警告信息比单纯的短信更有效,而针对对自己和他人造成伤害的沟通比仅针对吸烟者健康的警告更有效.. 关于这项研究的更多信息可以在NMSBA网站上找到.

Future

“我们正处于神经营销研究的突破阶段”, 估计Ohme, “where we stop being fascinated with the possibilities of the equipment, and we and are more fascinated with the insights and expertise we receive from neuro tools.“如果你把我们在阿姆斯特丹神经营销世界论坛上的神经表现和在圣保罗的神经表现进行比较, 纽约和巴塞罗那, you see a growing number of presentations focusing on the insights and on how to help your clients, 而不是你用的是哪种电极, 说Ohme. “所以在下一届论坛上,我希望我们能为客户提供更多的解决方案,而不是问题. Those are for the academia; business wants solutions,” he concludes.

建议的文献:

De Houwer和摩尔,2010

法齐奥等., 1986

费舍尔,1993

Greenwald等. 1998

格林沃尔德,McGhee & Schwartz, 1998; Gregg, 2008 Perkins, A.正手,米.格林沃尔德,.公司D.卡尼曼,2011年

车道,Banaji Nosek, & 格林沃尔德,2007 Ranganath等人., 2008

Steenkamp、德容、 & 鲍姆加特纳,2010,威尔逊,2002

参与者:

Phil Barden is Managing Director of decode marketing and author of ‘Decoded. 《亚博IM电竞网址》(Wiley, 2013)

Darren Bridger is the author of the forthcoming ‘Decoding the Irrational Consumer’ (Kogan Page, 2015年8月)

杰玛·卡尔弗特教授 founder of Neurosense Group

Thom Noble is founder and CEO of NeuroStrata, global, independent mind-science consultancy.

Rafal Ohme是 founder 的Neurohm

邓肯·史密斯是思维实验室的常务董事

Sarah Walker is Global Neuroscience Practice Director at 明略行

This article (textual and pictorial content) is subject to copyright. 仅供教育用途. 更多信息:神经营销科学 & 商业协会.